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Hiking to 44 Grove in Redwood National Park – Redwoods Are Fine but Tan Oaks are Toast

1      Hike to 44 Grove

A 1963 survey of redwoods along Redwood Creek in what would become Redwood National Park five years later determined a tall redwood growing on a flat along Redwood Creek across from 44 Creek outflow was the second tallest tree in the area and a sign was erected at its base.  The tree and sign still exist today, but getting there involves a very steep climb down from the Redwood Creek trail in the 44 creek area followed by a creek crossing or alternatively a series of five creek crossings hiking north from Tall Trees Grove.  In either instance the creek can only be safely crossed when the flow rate is low in mid to late summer.   A few weeks ago I hiked to this flat, called 44 Grove, from Tall Trees Grove.  It was a pleasant hike, the stream crossings were not difficult, only a little over knee high, and the cobbles in the gravel bar got smaller as we headed away from Tall Trees Grove, making the gravel bar walking fairly easy.  It took about 25 minutes to do the one mile hike downstream from Tall Trees Grove to 44 Grove.

2      44 Grove and Harry Cole Redwood

Forty-four Grove is revealed in a spectacular fashion as a bend in the creek is followed.  This grove includes the Harry Cole tree, which was 367 feet tall in 1964 (so the sign says) and identified as the second tallest tree in the area (so the same sign says).  This tree remains about 367 feet tall today, and maybe a little taller based on the measuring I did with a rangefinder.  It has a healthy looking top.

Here are pictures of 44 Grove from the south, Harry Cole is the second tree in from the creek.  Then the remaining pictures show the still standing sign stating “Second Tallest Redwood 367.4 Feet 1964” as well as a couple additional photos of Harry Cole.  There is a huckleberry bush growing on the sign with ripe huckleberries.

44 Grove from south. Harry Cole is second tree in from creek and is 367 feet tall. There are only 15 or so redwoods taller. Note browned out tan oaks bottom right.
Hard to read but sign says “Second Tallest Tree – 367.4 Feet”. Sign erected in 1964. Note huckleberry bush on post.
Harry Cole redwood south side of trunk. DBH is 16 feet.
View of Harry Cole redwood upper trunk and crown.

3      Sudden Oak Death Among Tan Oaks in 44 Creek Area

It was sad to see so many brown dried out dead or dying tan oaks in the 44 Creek area.  There is an interesting Master degree thesis done by a Humboldt State student in 2017 on mitigation and propagation of Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in Redwood Creek.  Apparently the area between Bond and 44 Creek and the area around Bridge creek evidenced significant SOD among tan oaks starting a few years ago and mitigation treatments including cutting, establishing a buffer, and wood removal occurred in 2014 and 2015.  This SOD mitigation involved tan oaks and bay laurels (which carry SOD).  The redwoods and other tree species were left alone.  SOD does not affect redwoods.

Then after all this work the SOD still spread downstream to the Emerald Creek area from Bridge creek and also downstream past Bond Creek from 44 Creek.  There are affected tan oaks even north of Elam Creek. Apparently the SOD spores were able to move as much as 1.5 km in a short time due to two causes.  First, the pineapple express late winter storms with strong south winds spread the spores.  Second, the annual rise in the level of Redwood Creek due to winter rains allows the water to flow against low tan oak branches along the creek, and the spores are trapped in branch cavities.

What to do ….. sure it is being debated.  The thesis mentions giant buffers could be cut around the affected areas, 300 meters in width, where non affected tan oaks and bay laurel are removed.  But as also mentioned so much of Redwood Creek would be involved and the work only postpones the inevitable.  It may be the tan oaks will be left to their fate, and they will brown and die along Redwood Creek, all of them.  The same may happen along the feeder creeks, more slowly.

This die off will provide more fuel and any wildfires will burn hotter.  It is thought the older redwoods would tolerate a hot fire without issue but redwoods under two feet in diameter could be killed by such a fire.

Here are some pictures of dying tan oaks seen along Redwood Creek.  If you go to Google Maps “satellite view” you will see a lot of brown in the 44 / Bond and Emerald/Bridge creek areas, those are the dying tan oaks.  Pretty sad.

Redwood Creek just north of Tall Trees Grove. Note brown tan oaks on right bank.
Redwood Creek a little south of 44 creek outflow. Note very unhealthy large tan oak.
North side of Harry Cole redwood. Note SOD affected tan oak to left.

Thanks for reading.

The Ghost Giant

1      Coast Redwoods Over 50,000 Cubic Feet Volume – Ghosts of the Past?

Have you seen the images of the redwood giants of the past, such as the 70,000 cubic foot Crannell Creek Giant?    Or maybe the 393 foot tall Lindsay Creek tree, which is alleged to have been 90,000 cubic feet volume.  Today, living redwoods approach the record heights of the past.  For example the height of Hyperion redwood at 380 feet attains 97% of the 393 foot height stated for the Lindsay Creek tree.  However the largest volume redwood, Spartan aka Grogan’s Fault, with 41.3 thousand cubic feet of volume, is just 60% of the volume of the Crannell Giant, which was accurately measured.  Why is this, why are all the largest of the redwood giants gone?  Or are they?

2      Tall Redwood Surprises

When I was I kid in the late 1960’s I was always interested in superlatives, including the tallest tree.  I remember reading heights for the tallest redwood given as 363 feet or 367 feet.  But right around that time there was an unannounced discovery of a 385 foot redwood growing on a flat along Redwood Creek near the Bond Creek outflow.  This tree was one of the last to be cut down along lower Redwood Creek before the establishment of Redwood National Park in 1968.

Starting around 2000 there was a new round of tall tree discoveries as laser range finders made it easier to identify tall trees. Hyperion and Helios were the new tallest trees found during this period, with heights 2.5% taller than the previously known tallest trees.  Then in the late 2000’s LiDAR aerial surveys were carried out where entire groves could be definitively surveyed for height.  From this came a list of a few dozen unknown redwoods taller than 106 meters in height, but none were taller than Hyperion.

3      Large Volume Redwood Surprises

It is much more difficult to measure the volume of a redwood than its height.  Any tree approximates a tapering cylinder and formulae for types of cones or canonical frustums need to be applied to sections of the tree to determine volume.  On top of this, for the largest redwoods, they are going to be hidden among other smaller redwood trees, with their tops seldom exceeding the 106 meter height used to ground truth LiDAR height measurements.

If you look at the largest redwood lists, it seems to be a list of the largest redwoods by a road or by a trail or along a major tributary such as Prairie Creek, Mill Creek, or Redwood Creek.   Nothing there for redwoods growing along feeder creeks on schist benches with nearby springs.   Some of the tallest redwoods grow up the feeder creeks, why can’t some of the largest redwoods as well?

4      The 50,000 Cubic Feet Ghost Redwood

If there is a 50,000 cubic foot redwood still growing, it is well hidden.  Like some smaller giants it would be maybe 325 feet in height, just a little too low to attract LiDAR height investigation.  It would be away from a road and a trail and a major tributary.  But maybe not too far away.  It would be on a nice dark soil bench, with a seasonal spring close by.  It could be in the big forest south of the old Redwood Creek mill site, or maybe in lower Lost Man.  It could be on the hill above the Atlas Grove in Prairie Creek or maybe in the marbled murrelet wilderness in the same park.  It could be in the Klamath area, or the untrailed tracts of Jedediah Smith Redwoods.

A redwood tree of 50,000 cubic feet volume is not much of a stretch from the current largest known at 41,000 cubic feet.  All you need is an extra six percent or so in both height and diameter to get you that extra twenty percent of volume.  That is how the geometry works.  And that six percent is no more of a stretch than the fact a 385 foot redwood was found along redwood creek at the time when the tallest trees were thought to be around 365 feet.

A 50,000 cubic foot redwood would be a ghost, a reminder of the start of the twentieth century with men in suspenders and derby caps and women in long flowing dresses with rolled up umbrellas posed around giant redwood trunks.  I can picture such a tree, deep in a forest, over 300 feet in height, with a 25 foot diameter at chest height and a 20 foot diameter at 70 feet.  With 26,000 cubic feet of wood in that section alone, and another 26,000 feet in wood above it.  A 52,000 cubic foot redwood, right up there with General Sherman.  This Redwood Ghost would look something like Howland Hill Giant or Sir Isaac Newton, only wider, especially up the trunk.  It would have some big redwoods as neighbors with perhaps some tan oaks, Sitka spruce, and western hemlock sprinkled in, all in a carpet of ferns.

Maybe I have seen this ghost, or maybe it was a dream.   It was not a dream.

Thanks for reading.

Redwoods Hiking June 2018 – Damnation Creek Trail

1      Damnation creek Trail – Upper Section

Del Norte Redwoods State Park is much more than the land of high bluffs, fog, and lane closures between Klamath and Crescent City.  There are some nice redwood groves in this park, with many trees over 300 feet in height.  The Damnation Creek Trail really shows off what the park has to offer.  Parking for this trail is on the west side of US 101 and I strongly suggest entering and exiting the parking area while traveling south as the northbound lanes include a passing lane with very fast traffic. The trail is not associated with Damnation Creek until the very end.  Instead the trail winds down a separate valley just to the south of Damnation Creek valley.

The upper section of the trail has some big diameter trees and nice rhododendron displays in May and June.  Here are a couple pics of the rhododendron on the upper section of this trial.

Rhododendron in late afternoon light

 

Rhododendron and big redwoods

 

2      Damnation Creek Trail – Middle Section to Lower Section

 

There is a remarkable grove with tall redwoods in the middle section of Damnation Creek Trail.  This grove is along and below the intersection of the Damnation Creek Trail with the Coastal Trail.  The redwoods are beautiful but end abruptly at about 500 feet elevation above the ocean where the bluffs get extremely steep.  When near the edge of the redwood habitat the air carries the smell of the ocean, waves can be heard, and the blue ocean peeks through tree trunks and crowns.

Below is a Coastal Trail / old coastal highway road marker for the grove, apparently erected in 1925.  The grove honors Henry Solon Groves – “forester, educator, and administrator”.  This marker is toward the south side of the canyon.

Henry Solon Graves grove marker apparently erected in 1925.

 

The coastal trail circles the entire canyon, and the Damnation Creek trail winds down along the north side.  The redwoods are quite spectacular in the late afternoon, with their lower trunks shading each other but with the tops lit up by the setting western sun.  The view from the tops of these redwoods must be spectacular.

Here are some views of redwoods in this canyon from the Coastal Trail as well as from the Damnation Creek trail below the Coastal Trail.

Redwoods along old coastal highway

 

Tall redwood crowns along Damnation Creek trail below Coastal Trail lit by late afternoon sun

 

Tall redwoods near edge of bluff along Damnation Creek Trail

 

Thanks for reading.

Coast Redwood – Summary of the 2,000 Trees Over 100 Meters in Height

1      Coast Redwood – The 100 Meter Tree

The only known tree species with living 100 meter specimens is the coast redwood.  There are five other species that exceed the 90 meter mark, but at the moment just coast redwoods have 100 meter class trees.

A few months ago I posted some details on 100 meter trees in Humboldt redwoods and from that inferred the total number of 100 meter redwoods in other parks based on some published information on the number of acres in each park capable of supporting 90 meter redwoods.  After further research and analysis, including processing many point cloud data sets, it is evident the number of 100 meter redwoods is around 2,000, not 5,000 as I previously posted.

2      100 Meter Trees in Northern Redwood Parks

 

Using Michael Taylor’s 2013 and 2015 tree height lists, the number of 105 meter trees in each redwood park can be determined with good accuracy.   Then for Humboldt Redwoods I have fairly complete LiDAR sourced information, either through data I processed myself using ArcGIS or via rendered maps.  So I used the association between 100 plus and 105 plus meter trees at Humboldt to estimate 100 plus meter trees in the three northern redwood parks.

This results in the following chart.  I have added the 100 meter tree data from other areas, with the source noted.

So there are 2,000 or so coast redwoods above 100 meters in height (328 feet).

100 Meter Plus Redwoods

 

3      100 Meter vs 100 Yard Redwood Trees

 

There are many, many redwood trees that exceed 100 yards (300 feet) in height.   At least 25,000.  So we have a pretty big drop off from 100 yard redwoods to 100 meter redwoods.  There are special conditions required for redwood trees to reach 100 meters.

For example, this is from NOAA LiDAR of the north tip of Orick Hill.  All the white dots are 300 foot redwoods, there are about 40.  But if this is changed to 100 meters (328 feet), there is only one dot left, and it is halfway up the hill toward the south end of this map.  What about the location of this tree enables it to get to 330 feet, versus everything downstream is between 300 and 330 feet.

Orick Hill NOAA LiDAR 300 foot trees (white dots)

Why this drop off, and what is required for a redwood to grow exceptionally tall?  One very interesting contributor is the ebb and flow of the marine fog layer.  Where the layer persists in the summer, height is suppressed.  Where the layer comes and goes daily in the summer, height is maximized.  Where the layer does not reach in the summer, height is again suppressed.   I will write more about this in the future.

Thanks for reading.

Redwoods Hiking June 2018

1      Humboldt Redwoods State Park

I spent an enjoyable Sunday in early June 2018 looking through the groves along the Avenue of the Giants, including Bolling, Kent, Federation, and Founders Groves.  There were a series of tall trees I wanted to locate in each of these groves and was successful, combining older clues involving groves and tree descriptions with newer information available on Open Topography LiDAR portal.  Finding the trees became a test of GPS navigation and inference, with a bit of range finder height measurements to confirm certain tall trees.

The Bolling Grove sits right by the Avenue.  The area of tall trees is very small, and the trunks are arranged in a pleasant pattern that recalls a sculpture garden.  Three of the four trees in the main grouping are over 100 meters.  Here you can see the rendered LiDAR point cloud data, where purple is 105 meters in height and red is 100 meters in height.

Bolling Grove processed LiDAR point cloud data, red is 100 meters, purple is 105 meters height

Then you can compare the LiDAR with the photo of the tree grouping.  The one in front is 100 meters, then the ones to back left (Bolling Stovepipe) and back right have crown points above 105 meters.

Bollling Grove – a sculptural garden of massive redwoods

 

The grove is dedicated to Colonel Raynal C. Bolling who was killed in action 100 years ago (March 2018) during World War I.

 

A little later in the day I hiked the Founders Grove trails.  There are many great trees all over this grove, with 200 or so trees in the grove over 100 meters in height.

Founders Grove – all purple circles are 100 meter redwoods

Here is one of the tall trees in Founders Grove, aptly named Javelin.  Sure you can see why.

Javelin redwood tree in Founders Grove

 

2      Jedediah Smith Redwoods

 

A few days later in the same week I did some group hikes in Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park, near Route 199 in the Walker Road area.   There are nice flats in this area with a good number of 100 meter plus redwoods.  I believe this area has the northernmost 100 meter coast redwood trees.

The loop trails along Walker Road are really nice.  The amount of western hemlock is amazing, they grow everywhere on everything.

Here are a couple tall trees in the area, both well above 100 meters.  The bench was built in 1972 as a viewing point to the second tree pictured.  Its trail is no longer maintained but still gets a lot of use.

Tall double spike top at Walker Road and Route 199

 

Tall symmetrical redwood west of Walker Road (John King Fesler Grove)

 

Bench is positioned to view the tall symmetrical redwood. Dedicated in 1972

 

I will post more about this trip later.  Thanks for reading.

Huge Offset Side Branches Serve as Mass Dampers To Help Hyperion Redwood Grow Very Tall Without Wind Breakage

1      Structure of Hyperion Redwood

 

The overall structure of Hyperion redwood is well detailed in this excellent redwoods study (as SESE 49 in Appendix K):

How do tree structure and old age affect growth potential of California redwoods?

Stephen C. Sillett, Robert Van Pelt, Allyson L. Carroll, Russell D. Kramer, Anthony R. Ambrose, D’Arcy Trask

Ecological Monographs 2015 Vol: 85 (2) :181-212.
doi: 10.1890/14-1016.1

I use this study for some reference information but what follows are my own independent analyses and ideas.

Hyperion has a very unusual feature versus other very tall redwoods in the study.  About 30 meters up on the tree there are two huge branches that grow out from the trunk at near 90 degree angles for a couple meters and then turn straight upwards for twenty or so meters.  Both these branches are on the same side of the trunk and together weigh about 5,000 kg.

Hyperion has a volume of 550 cubic meters, of which about 140 cubic meters are above the huge branches growing out from the trunk thirty meters up.  The 140 cubic meters of volume has a total weight of about 55,000 kilograms (based on Hyperion’s total mass of 210 Mg and total volume of 550 cubic meters).

Therefore the upper 85 meters of Hyperion can be viewed as a 55,000 kg object with 5,000 kg of weight offset from but connected to the base.

 

2      Mass Dampers

 

Mass dampers are used in construction and design to help stabilize vibration from external forces.  For example very tall buildings will employ mass dampers to reduce sway so people do not feel sea sick in high winds as the top of the building sways.   Dampers are also used in automotive engines to reduce vibration.

Mass dampers add cost and complexity to structure design, and there is a trade off in materials and methods used in vibration dampening versus actual benefit.

As a result typical mass dampers are set up in a counterbalance system where the damper is about 10 percent of the mass of the object being dampened.  This then reduces vibration at the radial end of the vibrating object by about forty percent.

For more information see Wikipedia article on Tuned mass dampers.

 

3      Hyperion And Its Built In Mass Damper

 

Reviewing the redwood diagrams it is evident Hyperion redwood has very little breakage in its crown for such an old and tall redwood tree (1260 years old, 116 meters height).  There is no breakage in the top part of the crown, this is one reason why Hyperion has its great height.  Great location, great soil, nightly fog, and tucked into a valley for wind protection.

But Hyperion has something else going for it.  Those big side branches 30 meters up, with combined weight at ten percent of the trunk weight above them, serve as tuned mass dampers to reduce crown sway in high winds by about fifty percent.   The unique structure of Hyperion has contributed to wind breakage suppression, allowing Hyperion to grow very tall without interruption.

Thanks for reading.

Looking up Hyperion’s trunk from uphill side.  Hyperion’s large , low side branches are not shown in this photo.

Letter from Mario Vaden

This is a letter I received from Mario Vaden, published with his permission.

Hello Mark.

Feel free to share this note. It relates to a website that has correctly and incorrectly posted redwood locations, including a few from past research. And I understand that my may be getting some “flack” from people who (incorrectly) imagine you are tied to it. The anonymous site could be illegitimate if a fake name was used to purchase hosting. But either way, it remains anonymous.  Anyhow, here are a few thoughts.

There have only been two people (we know of) that I ever thought had the skill set and time to slap together all the content. I never concluded they did it.  They had the ability and proximity, but most everything else indicates no involvement, especially their fondness for the finer aspects of nature..

If anyone thinks you were behind it, that’s ridiculous. It would take corrupt logic or emotion to reach that conclusion. Lack of proximity alone means you could not compile that stuff. The photos and redwoods and paragraphs appeared at a pace that required  nearly weekly or monthly visits to the parks. You live so far away in Illinois, there’s not a chance you could have done one-tenth of it. The pattern of progress basically proved it was someone along the redwood coast, or in similar driving distance. Anyone who does not realize that aspect alone, has holes in their head like Swiss cheese, to think otherwise.

It wouldn’t even matter whether or not you had skills to tweak code or capture images.  You probably don’t but the conversation ended  long before that thought. Lack of proximity and access rule-you-out … easily.

Maybe I had an advantage. There’s several I know were not involved, like yourself, Michael, the other Steve, Zane, etc.. But I had a long ongoing relationships and conversations with all of you, for years. And the degree of interaction I had with each of you, none of you had the same with each other.  And honestly, out of every one of them (us), I think you put more effort in to unearth who was behind all of it, and hopefully reverse it. Plus, you even donated more than anyone initially toward signs to help the parks diminish wear in the grove of titans. While others were running around in circles reaching no productive conclusion, at least you made tangible progress.

Anyhow, the reason for this, is to express that if anyone thinks you were blabbing locations to the world, that boils down to a lack of thinking and series of brain-farts.

FWIW … I was surprised when one of the “tree community” suspected it was me for a while. The mere mention sounded insane when I first learned.  But it became apparent they did not begin, or arrive at the false suspicions on their own. There must be others spreading, sowing or growing confusion for that to happen. And it only happens when people elevate imagination over fact and reason.

So … on that note, looking forward to another great hike or bushwhack next June of July.

Cheers,

 

Mario Vaden

 

Reply to Mario from Mark Graham

Thanks Mario.

I myself have pointed a finger at others, incorrectly as it turns out, so I guess it was my turn under the microscope.

I don’t have any association with the web site of concern, and have posted a sworn statement on this web site to affirm.

 

Humboldt Redwoods State Park – 1,000 100 Meter Redwoods

1      100 Meter Redwoods

 

What sets coast redwoods apart from other tree species is their great height.   It is the only species with extant trees over 100 meters in height, and there are 3,000 – 5,000 such redwood trees.  And around 1,000 of these trees are in Humboldt Redwoods State Park (HRSP).

The 100 meter redwoods in HRSP are of course concentrated along Bull Creek and nearby Eel River groves.  But surprisingly there are 100 meter redwoods in many areas of Humboldt, from the very northernmost area to the very southernmost area.

A 2014 Eel River LiDAR survey generated point cloud data which can be used to determine tree height by subtracting ground heights from first return heights.  There is existing software with built in functions to do the heavy lifting.  The point cloud data was recently put on the Open Topography Portal.  I went ahead and downloaded twenty of so subsections of this point cloud data and reviewed tree height in the groves along the Eel River and Eel River south fork.

As part of the review derivative maps were created which profile the canopy by height.  For example, this is the road going into Founders Grove from the Avenue of the Giants.  The purple indicates 100-105 meters in height.  You can see there is a 100 + meter tree at the entrance, then another taller one on the right side of the road right where the parking lot starts.  So this level of specificity can be reviewed throughout the park.

Founders Grove entrance canopy map

 

This table is a tall tree recap of the areas of Humboldt Redwoods included in the 2014 LiDAR survey.  Most have 100 meter trees, some quite a few.  I also included a column for the number of trees between 90 and 100 meters.  To do this work I just counted  crowns by height band on the derivative height maps I created.  The counts are approximately right but I am sure could be off by a little bit (but not by much).

Eel River Corridor HRSP Tall Tree Summary

 

Rather than showing the derivative maps I made four overview maps of Humboldt Redwoods.  I hope you enjoy them, they provide a good general overview of where the tall trees are.

2      North End – Pepperwood Area

 

The Pepperwood area has a few 100 meter trees, including one that is quite tall.

HRSP North Areas with Tall Trees

 

3      Core Area

 

Most of the tall trees in Humboldt are along Bull Creek or in the river groves near the Bull Creek outflow.  Although Bull Creek was not included in the 2014 LiDAR survey, there are other sources for that area with partial information.   So the counts for Bull Creek are estimates.  There are also quite a few tall trees along the river south of Bull Creek.  Then Founders Grove, Rockefeller Loop, and Federation Grove have many tall trees.

HRSP Core Areas with Tall Trees

 

 

4     Burlington to Canoe Creek to Great Peninsula

 

Here there is a large cluster of tall trees along the Canoe Creek bend and along Canoe Creek itself

HRSP South Areas with Tall Trees

 

5      Phillipsville Area

 

Here way at the south end of the Avenue there are still a few tall trees.   Also not shown is the Redway area, where there is one 100 meter plus tree.

HRSP Phillipsville Area Tall Trees

 

 

Doing these maps has me interested in visiting some areas of Humboldt I have not been to.  One trail in particular is the River Trail from Bull Creek south to the Garden Club Grove.  It is supposed to be very scenic.

Thanks for reading.

Revealing the Locations of the Largest and Tallest Redwoods

1      Secret Redwoods Locations

 

I made my first visit to the coast redwoods parks in 2014.   I was always interested in the tall redwoods but really didn’t feel an urge to visit the parks until the point in time the tallest redwood tree was named but its location was kept secret.  The treasure hunt, if you will, intrigued me.

The book The Wild Trees, with its descriptions of the known and secret redwood trees and groves, certainly added interest as did the web sites and forums hinting about the location of Hyperion and the Atlas Grove and the Grove of Titans.

To be honest if the location of Hyperion was on a web site in 2014, I would not have traveled to the redwood parks.  Maybe I would have made it to the redwoods at some point in time in the same way I still want to visit Yosemite or the Giant Sequoia Groves or Yellowstone or the Little Big Horn area but maybe not.  It was the secrecy, the puzzle, and the treasure hunt that got me there.

Thanks for reading.

Sworn Statement

1      Sworn Statement

 

This is a sworn statement by Mark Edward Graham, as made on February 14, 2018.

I, Mark Edward Graham, have no current or past association or affiliation with the owners and contributors to the web site famousrewoods.com, and I have not knowingly provided any tree locations, photography, or data to the owners and contributors to the web site famousredwoods.com.

I, Mark Edward Graham, certify under penalty of perjury in any state of the United States, including Illinois and California, that the information provided herein is true and correct to the best of my knowledge.